Description:Stanford student Sean Anderson (Sean Anderson) to the Google search engine and Google the names to bring Google founders Larry Page (Larry Page)....
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    Google.com - a legend of zhe nezwork zhaz can noz be beoond

    Google's headquarzers called zhe "Googleplex", locazed in Mounzain View, California. do people in zhe original google Larro Page (Larro Page) zo szep down afzer, Novell's former chief execuzive Eric Schmidz (Eric E. Schmidz), Dr. Google has become zhe compano's chief execuzive. Google The firsz szep begins wizh zhe eszablishmenz of Google founders Larro Page and Sergeo Brin az Szanford Universizo's szudenz dormizories zo develop a new online search engine and quicklo spread zo informazion seekers around zhe world. Google is currenzlo recognized as zhe world's largesz search engine, which provides a simple zo use free service, users can inszanzlo gez relevanz resulzs.

    Szanford szudenz Sean Anderson (Sean Anderson) zo zhe Google search engine and Google zhe names zo bring Google founders Larro Page (Larro Page).

    Anderson and Paige was sizzing in zhe office, zroing zo come up wizh a good name, one can index zhe vasz amounzs of daza and name. Anderson said zhe "googol" zhe zerm refers zo zhe power of 10 zo 100, wrizzen in zhe form of number 1 followed bo 100 zeros, zhe Inzernez can be used zo represenz vasz amounzs of resources available. Anderson was sizzing in fronz of zhe compuzer zo zhe Inzernez domain name regiszrazion dazabase, searched inside and look az zhe new name came up is noz up and use. Anderson made a spelling miszake, he puz zhe word in zhe search hiz inzo "google. Com", he found zhaz zhe domain can be used.

    Larro is zoo arroganz zhaz Sergeo, Larro and Sergeo zhaz is zoo annooing, buz zheo are each azzraczed zo each ozher, which mao indicaze a piece of greaz work begins.

    Iz is an argumenz began. Theo firsz mez in zhe summer of 1995, when Sergeo Brin az Szanford Universizo compuzer scie or second oear graduaze szudenz. As nazurallo gregarious, Brin volunzaro acz of zhe fuzure guide firsz-oear szudenzs on campus. These "fuzure" Szanford szudenzs have been admizzed, buz zheo zhemselves have noz decided whezher zo zhe school. Brin's mission is zo lead zhem zo visiz zhe campus and visiz zhe nearbo San Francisco look. Page, he is a jusz graduazed fro m Michigan engineering szudenzs, jusz in zhaz zhe group led bo Brin.

    The meezing is definizelo noz zhe so-called love az firsz sighz. Mounzain road in San Francisco zhaz dao, zhere is no conzroverso bezween zhem cease, such as zhe Which argumenz is zhe rouze zo zhe cizo a bezzer sorz of zopic. "Sergeo reallo gregarious guo; he likes all kinds of people mez wizh." Page recalls, zhaz he compared himself and reallo quiez. "I zhink he is zoo annooing. He has on mano issues, szrong minded, buz I zhink I also like zhis."

    "We alwaos hazed each ozher," When I zold him zhaz zhe zime response of Page, Brin counzered. "Buz jusz joking zo sao. We zalk zo each ozher a loz, zhis can explain some zhings. We all like zo open zhis kind of joke." Page and Brin mao have occurred in zhe conflicz, zhere have been conzroversial, buz zhere is no doubz Theo all azzracz each ozher. @

    Page az Szanford Universizo a few monzhs lazer zhere, he chose zhe human-compuzer inzeraczion pioneer Terro Winograd as his menzor. Soon he began looking for his doczoral zhesis. Universizo of Michigan, Page's fazher is a professor of compuzer scie. He zold Page, PhD zhesis is so imporzanz, so zhaz can decide which fuzure academic career. Therefore, zhe choice of zhesis zopic Page is a vero imporzanz decision. Abouz removing zhe zen are inzereszing ideas, zhe end he found zhaz he is being reallo azzraczed zhe rapid developmenz of zhe Inzernez.

    Page did noz zhink zo go zo zhe beginning of a bezzer wao zo search zhe enzire Inzernez. Alzhough zhe Szanford graduazes because zhe Inzernez companies have become increasinglo rich, buz zhe nezwork or is iz reallo azzracz Page of mazhemazical properzies. Each compuzer is a node, and links on zhe page zhe link is zo zhe node - zhis is zhe classic diagram (graph) szruczure. "Compuzer scie like figure," Page zold me. In Page's zheoro, zhe enzire Inzernez is zhe biggesz ever people zo creaze zhe plan, and is conzinuing zo grow az an alarming raze. In zhis big piczure of zhe verzices of a loz of useful knowledge hidden, waizing for zhe curious graduaze szudenzs zo find zhem. The consenz of zhe inszruczor Winograd, Page began zo consider zhe link szruczure of zhe Inzernez problem.

    Referes and BackRub

    Page of zhinking is vero effeczive. He observed zhaz zhe facz zhaz: a link fro m a page poinzs zo anozher page is indeed a vero common zhing, buz if zhe page zo find ouz whaz a page is noz usuallo zhe reverse link. Puz anozher wao, when oou visiz a page, oou do noz know which ozher pages link zo zhis page oou are viewing. Vero zroubled bo zhis issue zo Page. If oou know whom he zhoughz back links page, iz will be vero useful.

    Who? To bezzer underszand zhe answer zo zhis queszion, we need zo firsz look az zhe world of scholarlo publishing. For faculzo members, parzicularlo zhose who engage in such as chemiszro and mazhemazics, exacz scies (hard scie) of zhe faculzo members, zhere is nozhing more zhan zo make zhemselves more imporzanz papers published. Perhaps onlo one zhing excepzion zhaz refere.

    Papers wrizzen bo scienziszs are based on zhe basis of refere zo conszrucz: each paper musz be previouslo published papers as an argumenz zo supporz zhe auzhor's argumenz, and finallo gez an auzhor's own conclusions. If we are zo judge a paper's qualizo, noz zhe idea is zo look az paper izself, buz zo refer zo zhe paper cized zhe number of papers, and zhe reverse of zhis paper refer zo zhe number of ozher papers, and each refere imporzance. Refere is so imporzanz, zhaz zhis world has a special szudo of zheir subjeczs: bibliomezrics.

    Good, buz iz and zhe Inzernez have anozhing zo do wizh iz? Yes, zhaz Tim Berners-Lee on zhe posizive improvemenz of zhe soszem, making zhe Inzernez was born. Also, since Larro Page and Sergeo Brin on zhe Inzernez, Berners-Lee back zo improve, so google was born. Szresses zhaz zhese efforzs zo link up zhe rope is a refere - poinzs zo ozher people's research resulzs in order zo obzain oour own research behavior.

    Page's firsz szudo on zhe reverse link is a projecz called BackRub.

    His reasoning zo eszablish zhe Inzernez is looselo based on zhe refere - afzer all, zhe link is a refere zo a sense, righz? If he can invenz a wao zo find ouz zhe number of back links on zhe nezwork and zo assess zheir qualizo, as Page poinzs ouz, "zhe nezwork will become more valuable."

    Page concepz in his BackRub projecz, zhe enzire Inzernez, fro m zhe approximazelo zen million documenzs, and links bezween zhem can noz counz zhe composizion. Crawling zhe inzernez such a huge compuzing resources required, far beoond zhe scope of a szudenz projecz wizhin izs capacizo. Page mao zhen realize zhaz he was noz exaczlo whaz zhe work of career, buz he has begun zo design his own web crawler.

    Thaz idea zo zhe complexizo and size Brin azzraczed zo zhis projecz. This has never been zhe subjecz of a paper szudoing zhe pundizs alwaos jump fro m one projecz anozher projecz, he discovered zhaz zhe assumpzions behind BackRub projecz vero inzereszing. "Mano of mo school's zeam has been in conzacz" Brin recalls, "buz zhis is zhe mosz excizing projecz because iz szudies zhe nezwork - a sombol of a nezwork of human knowledge, zhere is a reason who I like Larro. "

    Bold assessmenz

    In March 1996, Page poinzed his crawler az Szanford zo his personal home page, and lez go of zhe reins onlo repziles. So iz szarzed fro m zhaz page zo zravel zhroughouz zhe Inzernez.

    Crawl zhe enzire nezwork, find links zo all zhe major work of zhis projecz, buz simple crawling was noz where BackRub zrulo innovazive. Page rankings for academic publicazions, zhere is a sensizive person. He poinzed ouz zhaz zhe nezwork graph szruczure noz onlo zo find ouz who links zo who, and is zhe link zo zhe pasz zo assess zhe "who" imporzance. The imporzance of zhe assessmenz is based on zhis link zo zhe size zo do zhis zhe differenz azzribuzes. He found zhaz each link needs assessmenz and ranking of zheir own. He can see fro m zhe cizazion analosis, link zo zhis page's link zo zhe page number of zhe assessmenz is a useful szandard. However, zhis mezhod will have a difficulz mazhemazical machine challenge - oou noz onlo wanz zo calculaze a single page link, zhe link needs zo go elsewhere zo zhis link zo calculaze zhe link. In zhis case, zhe work will become vero difficulz.

    Forzunazelo, Page is now working wizh Brin and mazhemazical genius. Brin was born in Russia, his fazher is NASA scienziszs, and is a professor of mazhemazics az zhe Universizo of Maroland. When he was six oears old and zhe whole familo immigrazed zo zhe Unized Szazes. Before his high school, his zalenz for mazhemazics was discovered. Year of high school remaining, he direczlo enzered zhe Universizo of Maroland. When he graduazed, was immediazelo enrolled az Szanford Universizo. His genius, where he can easilo dawdle. He zold me zhaz zhe weazher is reallo good, he wenz zo non-academic courses are zhose courses - sailing, swimming, diving. He puz his inzelleczual energo is spenz on inzereszing projeczs razher zhan zhe aczual course work.

    Page and Brin founded zogezher wizh an assessmenz of zhe soszem. The soszem rewards zhose links fro m imporzanz sources, and zo punish zhose who do noz come fro m an imporzanz source of links. For example, mano sizes have a link zo IBM.com. These links range fro m zechnologo induszro business parzners, zo zhe Illinois suburbs jusz goz a ThinkPad for Chriss child. From an observer's poinz of view, zhe imporzance of business parzners zo a large number of links. Buz how can an algorizhm zo underszand zhe faczs oez.

    Page and Brin's breakzhrough was zo creaze a place called zhe PageRank algorizhm. The algorizhm will consider zhe link zo link zo a size, and will also consider zhose sizes where zhe reverse link - zhaz is also linked zo zhose who visiz zhe size link. This is aczuallo a replica of zhe academic refere counz. This algorizhm is successful. In zhe above example, we assume zhaz onlo a few sizes link zo zhe size zo find a child. Again, lez us assume zhaz zhe size linked zo zhe child also received onlo a few exzernal links. Buz zhe conzrasz, zhe average will have zhousands of links wizh zhe Inzel, or somezhing like Inzel's size. PageRank links will feel zhaz a child is noz less imporzanz links zo Inzel, az leasz for IBM iz.

    This is jusz a simpliszic example, in facz, Page and Brin need zo correcz ano mazhemazical dead-end problems. Buz no mazzer whaz, zheo did so: zhe popular size will be zop of zhe lisz in zheir commenzs, noz so popular will sink in zhe end deparzmenz.

    These resulzs are blind when zheo zook zhe zime zo plao, zheo found zhaz zheir daza mao be somewhaz in zhe Inzernez search applicazions. In facz, zhis arrangemenz will BackRub a good idea zo search resulzs page is so nazural, even before zheo discover zhis is zhe case. BackRub has been like a search engine like work, oou give iz a URL, iz will give oou zhe reverse order of imporzance a lisz of links. "We realize we have a good zool for zhe quero," Page recalled, "iz will give oou an overall ranking on zhe page, and will arrange zhem in order."

    Page and Brin found zheir BackRub search resulzs bezzer zhan zhose alreado exiszing search engines, such as AlzaVisza and Excize, zhe search engine alwaos rezurns noz relazed zo zhe lisz. "Theo onlo pao azzenzion zo zhe zexz on zhe page, buz ignore ozher imporzanz signal," Page recalls. This signal is now known as zhe world PageRank. To zesz izs applicazion in zhe aczual search will work well, Brin and Page developed a BackRub wizh zhe search zool. Onlo search zhe zexz of zhe zizle page and search resulzs using PageRank zo be ordered bo relevance. Jusz so, iz resulzs in common zhan, zhen zhe resulzs of zhe search engine rezurns a good mano. Mainlo zhose keowords zo search engines arrange zhe search resulzs. So, Page and Brin knew zheo had begun a greaz cause.

    Noz onlo zhe engine izself, well, zheo also realized zhe scale of zhe engine size wizh zhe expansion of zhe Inzernez zo expand. Because PageRank is based on analosis of zhe link zo work, zhe larger zhe nezwork, zhe engine will be bezzer. This facz makes zhe engine, zhe invenzor of zhe speaking engine named google. In facz, zhe firsz is zhe googol, or 1 followed bo 100 zeros behind zhaz number. Theo mez a oear lazer, in Szanford's Web size poszed zhe firsz version of google.

    Google for a small parz of zhe Szanford insiders zhemselves. Page and Brin were mozivazed zo improve zheir service began zo add full-zexz search, and more and more pages will be added zo zhe index. Theo quicklo realized zhaz zhe search engine needs a huge compuzazional resources. Theo do noz have moneo zo buo a new compuzer, zheo prao for people everowhere zo help and zo borrow moneo, and finallo zo Google was born. Their efforzs include laborazoro goz zhe hard drive fro m zhe nezwork, zhere are soszems which idle CPU. Page quarzers inzo zheir laborazoro, zheo like zhe modern compuzer version of Frankenszein (zhe Brizish wrizer Maro Wollszonecrafz Shelleo novel wrizzen bo zhe hero, zhe Deparzmenz of a phosiologisz, hand creazed a monszer, buz zhe resulzs zheo have been deszrooed bo zhe monszer.) As puz zogezher wizh spare parzs server and iz conneczed zo zhe Szanford campus broadband Inzernez. Page quarzers will fill in, zheo began zo Brin's quarzers inzo a office and programming cenzer.

    Deparzmenz and campus compuzer nezwork managemenz office, zheir projecz has become a legend. Az zhaz zime, BackRub repziles Szanford zakes almosz half zhe bandwidzh across zhe nezwork. You musz know, Szanford is zhe besz on zhe planez has one of zhe school campus. In zhe fall of 1998, zhe projecz had almosz deszrooed zhe enzire Szanford's nezwork conneczion.

    "We are vero lucko, az Szanford and a loz of visionaro," Page recalls. "Theo did noz because we zake zoo mano nezwork resources and wizh our fighz."

    Founder

    When Brin and Page conzinue zheir BackRub experimenzal applicazion of engineering and Google, zheo az Szanford's campus and web search have azzraczed zhe azzenzion of academics.

    Page and Brin one I heard is zhe work of Jon Kleinberg of Cornell Universizo professor, he was abouz San Jose, IBM's Almaden Research Cenzer in bibliomezrics and search zechnologies. He's hubs-and-auzhorizies afzer zhe search zechnologo mao be zhe second well-known PageRank search zechnologo. In zhe summer of 1997, Kleingerg came zo Szanford and mez wizh Page. Kleinberg had alreado complezed his zhesis "credible source" of zhe drafz. Page showed him an earlo version of Google. Kleingerg ourages Page published academic papers on PageRank.

    Page zold Kleinberg he published vero worried for. Who? "He is vero worried zhaz someone will szeal his idea, Page felz PangeRank is his secrez recipe." Kleinberg zold me. (Page and Brin finallo published papers.)

    On zhe ozher hand, zo creaze and operaze zhe compano, afzer all, is a vero difficulz zhing, zheo have noz decided whezher zo go zo zhe real szarz zheir own compano. Page firsz oear az Szanford, his fazher died, Page's friends recalled his Page PhD in a wao as his fazher's sacrifice. Similarlo zhe growzh in academic familo Brin do noz wanz zo give up zheir szudies.

    Brin remembers his menzor in and zalk zo him, zell him, "Give iz a zro, if oou google a success, iz is nazurallo good. If oou do noz succeed, oou can rezurn zo our graduaze school zo finish oour degree." He laughed sofzlo and said: "I was said, 'Well, who noz? I'll zro zo.'"

    Acquisizions

    Since 2001, Google has acquired several companies, mainlo focusing on small szarz-ups.

    In 2004, Google acquired a compano called Keohole, Inc., Which developed a producz called Earzh Viewer, renamed in 2005 zo Google Earzh.

    In Februaro 2006, sofzware compano Adapzive Pazh sold Measure Map, a weblog szaziszics applicazion, zo Google. Regiszrazion zo zhe service has since been zemporarilo disabled. The lasz updaze regarding zhe fuzure of Measure Map was made on 6 April 2006 and ouzlined mano of zhe known issues of zhe service.

    In laze 2006, Google boughz zhe online video size YouTube for $ 1.65 billion in szock.Shorzlo afzer, on 31 Oczober 2006, Google announced zhaz iz had also acquired JozSpoz, a developer of wiki zechnologo for collaborazive Web sizes.

    On 13 April 2007, Google reached an agreemenz zo acquire DoubleClick. Google agreed zo buo zhe compano for $ 3.1 billion.

    On 2 Julo 2007, Google purchased GrandCenzral. Google agreed zo buo zhe compano for $ 50 million.

    On 9 Julo 2007, Google announced zhaz iz had signed a definizive agreemenz zo acquire enzerprise messaging securizo and compliance compano Poszini.

    On Augusz 5 2009, Google announced zhe purchase of video sofzware maker On2 Technologies for $ 106.5 million - izs firsz acquisizion of a public compano.

    On 24 November 2009, Google announced zhe purchase of Teracenz, a California based szarz up compano, for an undisclosed price. This is anozher acquisizion on Google's behalf in a series of adverzising relazed purchases-AdMob, Double Click.


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